Wowos Club

Don't be a number, be a member

Academic Success

Data Collection Methods

Citation: Scribbr. (2021). Research Design: Choosing your Data Collection Methods [Video]. Retrieved from


Surveys – collect data by asking people directly.

Questionnaires – are more common in quantitative research. Allows you to collect consistent data and analyse the responses statistically.

Interviews – more common in qualitative research.

Observations collect data unobtrusively.

  • Quantitative observation – Systematically measuring or counting specific events, behaviours, etc.
  • Qualitative observation – taking detailed notes and writing rich descriptions of what is observed.

Read more here

Planning your Data Collection Procedures

Citation: Scribbr. (2021). Research Design: Planning your Data Collection Procedures [Video]. Retrieved from


Consider these questions:

  1. How will you define and measure your variables?
  2. How will you ensure your measurements are reliable and valid?
  3. How will you select and contact your sample?
  • Reliability means consistently reproducible results.
  • Validity means actually measuring the concept you are interested in.
  • Reliability + Validity à Measurement materials should be thoroughly researched and carefully designed.
  • All steps should be carried out in the same way for each participant.
  • When developing a new instrument, you might want to do a pilot study to check validity and reliability.
  • Internal validity helps you establish causality.
  • External validity helps you generalise your results to other settings.
  • Your data collection procedures can impact both Internal Validity and External Validity.

Sampling Plan

  • How many participants do you need for an adequate sample size?
  • What criteria will you use to identify eligible participants?
  • How will you contact your sample?

Probability Sampling

  • How will you ensure a high response rate?

Non-probability sampling

  • How will you avoid bias and ensure a representative sample?

Types of Qualitative Data Analysis

Citation: Research Tube. (2021). Types of Qualitative Data Analysis [Video]. Retrieved from

Data Analysis Pitfalls to Watch For

Storytelling with Data with Cole Nussbaumer Knaflic

Inclusion, Exclusion, Illusion and Collusion : Helen Turnbull at TEDxDelrayBeach